Tricyclic Antidepressants

Tricyclic antidepressants are a category of antidepressants drugs that share identical biological effects and chemical structures. Tricyclic antidepressants treat bipolar disorders, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and several other mood disorders. They are also analgesics for migraine prophylaxis and treatment of chronic pain. Researchers believe that people suffering from depression might have cases of unbalanced neurotransmitters, natural substances that nerves build and use to pass information to the other nerves. Tricyclic antidepressants enhance serotonin and norepinephrine levels, the neurotransmitters and inhibit acetylcholine actions, another neurotransmitter. Bringing back the balance of these two neurotransmitters alleviate depression in the brain. In addition, tricyclic antidepressants block histamine activity and cause sedation.

Tricyclic Antidepressants Drugs

Drugs found in drug class Tricyclic Antidepressants include:

  • Clomipramine (Anafranil)
  • Imipramine (Tofranil, Praminil)
  • Desipramine (Norpramin, Pertofrane)
  • >Dibenzepin (Noveril, Victoril)
  • Lofepramine (Lomont, Gamanil)
  • Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Norpress)
  • Protriptyline (Vivactil)
  • Amitriptyline (Tryptomer, Endep)
  • Amitriptylinoxide (Amioxid, Equilibrin)
  • Amoxapine (Asendin)
  • Demexiptiline (Deparon, Tinoran)
  • Dimetacrine (Istonil, Miroistonil)
  • Dosulepin (Prothiaden)
  • Doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan)
  • Imipraminoxide (Imiprex, Elepsin)
  • Melitracen (Deanxit, Trausabun)

Tricyclic Antidepressants Uses

Tricyclic antidepressants enhances the levels of particular brain chemicals that regulate signals of pain and improve your mood. The natural chemicals are neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Elevated levels of these neurotransmitters in turn blocks acetylcholine actions thus alleviate depression. Low dosages of tricyclic antidepressants relieve chronic pain while higher doses have antidepressants effects. Various conditions treated by drugs in this class include:

  • Stress and anxiety
  • Burning mouth syndrome
  • Insomnia
  • Dysthymia
  • Cough
  • Pain
  • Panic disorder
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Depression
  • Migraine prevention
  • Major depressive disorder (MDD)
  • Neurosis
  • Night terrors
  • Neurotic depression
  • Smoking cessation
  • Sleep paralysis

Tricyclic Antidepressants Side Effects

Tricyclic antidepressants, just like other medications, may have their unwanted effects. Any unlikely situation you might experience, immediately seek medical attention. The more common side effects include:

  • dry mouth,
  • dry nose,
  • blurry vision
  • constipation and reduced gastrointestinal motility or constipation
  • urinary retention,
  • memory impairment and cognitive
  • Raised body temperature.

Other side effects:

  • Drowsiness
  • Anxiety
  • emotional blunting
  • confusion
  • restlessness
  • dizziness
  • Akathisia
  • hypersensitivity
  • sexual dysfunction
  • hypotension
  • tachycardia

Rare side effects:

  • Muscle breakdown or Rhabdomyolysis.
  • irregular heart rhythms

Tricyclic Antidepressants Interactions

There are various possible interactions with tricyclic antidepressants. That is drug, food, or lifestyle changes interactions. In the case of drug interactions, don't start or stop using the drug or even amend the prescribed dosage without consulting your doctor. A few of drugs that cause severe interactions with tricyclic antidepressants include:

  • Antiarrhythmic drugs. For example, flecainide, quinidine. The interaction enhances the risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Warning: Avoid current use.
  • CNS depressants. For example, Antihistamines, Benzodiazepines, Antipsychotics. The combination results in sedation and enhanced CNS depression. Warning: Increased drowsiness may result.
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibiting drugs. For example, tranylcypromine. This combination can lead to convulsions, high fever and also death.
  • Epinephrine: such as Primatene, Marcaine, Adrenalin, EpiPen. The interaction cause severe hypertension
  • Cimetidine (Tagamet).
  • Lithium
  • Clonidine
  • Warfarin
  • Antipsychotics
  • Selegiline
  • Ritonavir
  • tramadol

Alcohol also interacts with tricyclic antidepressants. It blocks the action of the antidepressant.

Main Tricyclic Antidepressants Drugs

Amitriptyline Pamelor Doxepin

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